17 The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37.16 inches) on July 26, 2005. 18 The dry season, between november and February, is characterized by moderate levels of humidity and warm to cool weather. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill during January and February. Annual temperatures range from a high of 38 C (100 F) to a low of 11 C (52 F). The record high.3 C (110 F) and record low.4 C (45 F). 19 Mumbai's mean monthly temperature in mid-summer (May) is 33C (91f in mid-winter (January) it drops to 19C (67F).
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Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone 15 owing to the presence of three fault bike lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a zone iii region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude.5 on the richter-scale may be expected. Mumbai is classified as a metropolis of India, under the jurisdiction of the Brihanmumbai municipal Corporation. It consists of two distinct regions—the city and the suburbs, which also form two separate districts resume of Maharashtra. The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City. 16 Climate palm trees reflect Mumbai's tropical climate mumbai lies in the tropical zone, near the Arabian sea. The climate of the city may be broadly classified into two main seasons—the humid season, and the dry season. The humid season, between March and October, is characterized by high humidity and temperatures of over 30 C (86 F ). The monsoon rains lash the city from June to september, and supply most of the city's annual rainfall of 2,200 mm (85 inches ). The highest annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (135.89 inches) in 1954.
Five lakes supply water to mumbai: lakes Vihar, vaitarna, powai, tulsi and Tansa. Tulsi lake, hotel vihar lake and Powai lake are located within the metropolitan limits, the first two within the borivali national Park, and supply part of the city's drinking water. Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in the national Park. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity. On the western coast there are two beaches, named Juhu beach and Girgaum Chowpatti. Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black deccan basalt flows, and their acid and basic variants date back to the late Cretaceous and early eocene eras.
A few months later, on March 12, a series of co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by the mumbai underworld killed around three hundred people. In 1995, the city was renamed Mumbai by the Shiv sena government of Maharashtra, in keeping with their policy of renaming colonial institutions after historic local appellations. In recent years there have been bomb explosions on public transport buses. In 2006, mumbai was also the site of a major terrorist incident in which over two hundred people were killed when several bombs exploded almost simultaneously on the mumbai suburban railway. 13 geography The metropolis comprises the city and suburbs. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, which lies at the mouth of Ulhas river off the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the konkan. Much of Mumbai is just above sea level, and the average elevation ranges from 10 to 15 meters (32.8 49 feet). Northern Mumbai is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 meters (1,450 feet). 14 Mumbai spans a total area of 468 km (169 mi).
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Flora fountain was renamed Hutatma Chowk, or "Martyr's Crossroads in memory of the samyukta maharashtra movement The story opening of the suez canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian sea. 12 over the next 30 years, the city grew into a major urban center, spurred by an improvement in infrastructure and the construction of many of the city's institutions. The population of the city swelled to one million by 1906, making it the second largest in India after Calcutta. As capital of the bombay presidency, it was a major base for the Indian independence movement, and the site from which Mahatma gandhi launched the quit India movement in 1942. After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay state. In the 1950 the city expanded to its present limits by incorporating parts of Salsette Island which lies to the north. After 1955, when the State of Bombay was being reorganized along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.
However, the samyukta maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra. Following a successful protest, in which 105 people were killed by police fire, maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on may 1, 1960. Since the 1970s, mumbai has seen a population boom that has made it the 5th most populous city in the world and led to a construction boom The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, as a consequence of which. The influx of migrants caused unrest among the resident Maharashtrians and led to the creation, in 1966, of the hindu nationalist Shiv sena party by balasaheb Thackeray, to promote the rights of bhumiputra (sons of soil). The city was torn apart in the riots of, when large-scale sectarian violence caused extensive loss of life and property.
During the first few centuries of our era, control over Mumbai was disputed between the Indo-Scythian Western Satraps and the satavahanas. The hindu rulers of the silhara dynasty later governed the islands until 1343, when the kingdom of Gujarat annexed them. Some of the oldest edifices of the archipelago the Elephanta caves and the walkeshwar temple complex date from this era. In 1534, the portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. They were ceded to Charles ii of England in 1661, as dowry for Catherine de Braganza. These islands, were in turn leased to the British East India company in 1668 for a sum of 10 per annum.
The company found the deep harbor on the east coast of the islands to be ideal for setting up their first port in the sub-continent. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. In 1687, the British East India company transferred its headquarters from Surat to bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the bombay presidency. From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped, with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as the hornby vellard, was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 km (272 square miles). In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane. During the American civil War (18611865 the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy and subsequently enhancing the city's stature.
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9 The final form Bombaim appears later in the sixteenth century, as recorded by gaspar Correia in his Lendas da Índia legends of India. Machado seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, asserting that Portuguese records mentioning the presence of a bay at the place led the English to assume that the noun ( bahia, "bay was an integral part of the portuguese qualitative toponym, giving rise to the English. 11 History The bombay high court is a historic example of British colonial architecture in Mumbai present-day mumbai was originally an archipelago of seven islands. Artifacts found near Kandivali, in northern Mumbai, indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age. Documented evidence of human habitation dates british back to 250. C.E., when it was known as Heptanesia ( Ptolemy ) ( Ancient Greek : a cluster of seven Islands ). In the third century. C.E., the islands formed part of the maurya empire, ruled by the buddhist emperor, aşoka.
it was derived from a portuguese name meaning good bay. 6 This is based on the fact that bom is Portuguese for good, and the English word bay is similar to the portuguese baía ( bahia in old spelling). However, the normal Portuguese rendering of good bay would have been bahia boa rather than the grammatically incorrect bom bahia. Other sources give a different origin for the portuguese toponym Bombaim. José pedro machado's Dicionário onomástico Etimológico da língua portuguesa portuguese dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology mentions what is probably the first Portuguese reference to the place, dated from1516, as Benamajambu or Tena-maiambu, 7 pointing out that "maiambu" seems to refer to mumba-devi, the hindu goddess. In that same century the spelling seems to have evolved to mombayn (1525) 8 and then Mombaim (1563).
The city is home to India's Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood. Mumbai is also proposal one of the few cities that accommodates a national park, the sanjay gandhi national Park, within its city limits. Names, the name bombay is an eponym, etymologically derived from. Mumba or, maha-Amba —the name of the, hindu goddess Mumbadevi, and, aai —mother in Marathi. The former name, bombay had its origins in the sixteenth century, when the portuguese arrived in the area and called the place by various names which finally took on the written form. Bombaim, still common in current Portuguese use. British gained possession in the seventeenth century, it was anglicized. Bombay, although it was known as, mumbai or, mambai to marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and.
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Bal_g (, :., mime : image/jpeg) /. arianna, information DescriptionBal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) sourceg Dateca 1910 thesis Authorunknown Permissionpd-india other_versions 3 : :. Previous (Multiple sclerosis next (Mummy coordinates: 185830N 724933E /.975,.82583 "Bombay" redirects here. Mumbai (Marathi:, iast: Mumbaī, ipa: mumbəi/ formerly known as, bombay, is the the most populous city. India and capital of the state of Maharashtra. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of India. Along with its neighboring suburbs, it forms the world's fifth most populous metropolitan area with a population of about 20 million. Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, and houses important financial institutions, such as the reserve bank of India (rbi the bombay stock Exchange (bse the national Stock Exchange of India (NSE) and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies. Mumbai has attracted migrants from all over India because of the immense business opportunities, and the relatively high standard of living, making the city a potpourri of various communities and cultures.